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Konke okudingeka ukwazi nge-spiro compounds

Konke okudingeka ukwazi nge-spiro compounds

Isingeniso kuma-Spiro compounds

I-spiro i-compound iyinhlanganisela ephilayo lapho izindandatho ezimbili ze-bicyclic ziboshelwe i-athomu elilodwa. Ngokwemvelo, izakhiwo emasongweni kungenzeka kakhulu lo ubizwa ngokuthi spiroatom (athomu Kuvunguza), ngokuvamile Kuyinto carbon grade 4 (eyaziwa ngokuthi yi- carbon Kuvunguza) iyefana nobe yehlukile, futhi i-athomu yokuxhuma amasongo amabili, futhi unga futhi yi-silicon, i-phosphorus, noma i-arsenic. I-atro ye-spiro ngokuvamile i-athomu ye-carbon. I-spiro ihlanganisi izosebenzisa abakwa-parentheses ukubhala inani lezindandatho ngokwehlukana. Inombolo yendilinga ibuye iqukethe i-athomu ye-spiro ngokwayo, futhi inombolo encane iyoba phambi kwenombolo futhi ihlukaniswe ngethiza.

Okungenani izindandatho ezimbili ezingxenyeni ze-molecule zihlanganisa i-athomu ye-carbon (kwezinye izakhi, ezinye i-athomu, njenge-silicon, i-phosphorus, i-arsenic, njll). Amasongo amabili atholakala ezindizeni ezimbili eziphambene nomunye nomunye: ama-spiro ama-spiro asetshenzisiwe afanelekile futhi angaxazululwa abe yi-isomers optical (bheka isomerism ebonakalayo). Ngokuya ifomu, propadiene H2C = C = CH2 iyona elula uSpiro indandatho, futhi propadiene ukufaka endaweni efanele njengezimo 1,3-propadienediic acid optically asebenzayo futhi kungenziwa ahlukaniselwe isomers ezimbili optically asebenzayo. umzimba.

I-Classificatio

(I-1) Ngokusho kwenani le-atro spiro, i-spiro isakhi ingahlelwa ibe yinto eyodwa ye-spiro, i-dispiro, i-spiro kathathu, kanye ne-multi-spiral compound enezinhlobo eziningi zama-athomu e-spiro.

(2) I-carbocyclic spiro isakhi futhi i-spiro eyakhiwe nge-heteroocclic ingahlukaniswa ngokwezihlobo ze-athomu okufanele iqukethe, futhi uma i-athomu ye-carbon efaka i-carbocyclic spiro isakhi ishintshwe enye i-athomu, i-spiro compound compound isakhiwe.

(I-3) Ngokusho kohlobo lwendandatho, ingahlukaniswa ngamakhemikhali e-saturated, unsaturated, aromatic and aliphatic.

(4) Ukuhlanganiswa kwe-heterospirocyclic compounds. I-atro spiro esakhiweni se-spiro ingaba i-athomu ye-carbon noma ezinye izinto ezifana ne-Si, N, P, Ge nokunye. Uma i-atro spiro i-athomu yensimbi, isibopho esivumelanisiwe sakhiwa ngokujwayelekile, futhi inhlanganisela enjalo ye-spiro ibizwa ngokuthi i-heterocyclic compound.

I-polymeric spiro isakhi

I-polymeric spiro isakhi sinhlanganisela yama-athomu amabili noma ngaphezulu njengamasongo amathathu noma ngaphezulu. Uma uqamba i-spiro compound, isichazamazwi sezinombolo eseza i-di-, tri-, tetra-, ..., njll egameni lisho inani lamatomu e-spiro ahlukene ngokuhlukile phakathi kwamasongo. Ama-athomu enkampini ye-spiro ayebalwa ngokuhlelekile. Izwi le-composy polyspirocyclic liqala nge-molecule ye-ring ehlanganisa i-athomu ye-spiro, ebizwa ngokuthi i-ring terminal. Lezi zinhlayiya ze-polyspirocyclic zingaba namasongo amabili okugcina noma ngaphezulu futhi zinamathele ekhamini le-multi-spirocyclic. Phakathi kwabo, i-athomu eyodwa yokuvuthwa ixhumeke komunye nomunye. I-nomenclature kule ring yokugcina iqaliswe i-athomu eduze kwe-atro spiro, ebizwa ngokuthi inombolo ye-1, futhi i-molecule iyabalwa ngokuqala nge-molecule.

Amakhethini amabili noma ngaphezulu, isibalo sokuqala sendandatho yokugcina sizoba nesinye indlela yokukhetha. Lapho i-spiroatom yokuqala ibalwa, ama-spiro ama-compounds alandelayo kufanele axhunywe kuncane kakhulu okubonakalayo. Ukubala. Ake sithi kukhona i-compound enezindandatho ezimbili zokugcina, enye ne-athomu ye-6 enye enye nama-athomu we-8. Ukubalwa kwenombolo kuqalwa ngendandatho yama-athomu angu-6, ngoba ngemuva kokubala, i-spiroatom izobalwa nge-6. Uma indandatho ehlanganisa i-athomu ye-8 iqala, i-spiroatom izobalwa nge-8. Ukuqondiswa kwenombolo kunqunywe yi-spiroatom (kusukela ekuqaleni kwe-spiroatom yensimbi yesibalo esivele ikhona). Ake sithi i-athomu yenkohlakalo iqala ukulinganisa ngakunye, futhi uma inombolo ingaphansi kwenombolo ngakolunye uhlangothi, i-athomu yenkohlakalo ikhethiwe. Isiqondiso ngenombolo encane isetshenziselwa ukuqala ukubiza igama. Esikhathini se-athomu yokuvuthwa esilandelayo, usayizi wenani lombhalo awubalulekile kakhulu. Kwezinye izimo, izinhlamvu ezimbili zokuqala, ezintathu, ezine noma ngaphezulu zizohlelwa ngenombolo efanayo kungakhathaliseki ukuthi zibalwa kuphi. Ukukhethwa kwenkomba yokubala kukhethwe inqubo yokubala uma inombolo ehlukile ye-athomu ehlasizayo ihlangene, futhi ukuqondiswa kwama-athomu okuvulwa okubalwa okubalwa okukhethiwe. Isibonelo, uma uhlelo izinombolo kwelinye direction, inani spiroatom ngamunye 3, 5, 7, 10, futhi inani spiroatoms ngakolunye uhlangothi kuba 3, 5, 7, 9 ke isiqondiso inombolo yesibili ikhethiwe. . Kulesi simo, ngokuya kwenombolo yokuqala, inombolo ephakathi kwama-athomu amabili okuvunguza i-7 ne-10, futhi kunomboro ohlukile, i-7 ne-9. Ukubalwa kwanoma yikuphi i-athomu yesikulufa emva kwalokho akubalulekile, futhi isiqondiso sokubala sinqunywe yisiqondiso senombolo 9.

Ekuqanjweni kwamasongo amaningi e-spiro, inamba yokuqala kubazali ababonisa ukuthi i-athomu endandeni yokuqala esiseduze ne-atro spiro iyinombolo eyodwa. Izinombolo ezisele zimelela inani lama-athomu phakathi kwama-athomu we-spiro, noma ama-athomu esendlini yokugcina. Inombolo ngayinye ihlukaniswe yisikhathi (isikhathi seNgisi). Kulesi sibonelo, kune-athomu amabili (i-1 ebalwa no-2) ngaphambi kwe-spiroatom yokuqala (i-3). Awekho ama-athomu phakathi kwe-3 ne-4 spiroatoms, futhi kunjalo nakwa-spiroatoms ku-4 no-5, i-5 no-6. Kukhona ama-athomu amabili kule ring yesibili yokugcina, i-6 ne-5, i-5 ne-4, futhi kukhona phakathi kuka-4 no-3.

Ngakho-ke, ukulandelana [2.0.0.0.2.1.1.1] kuyatholakala. Esikhathini esingakwesokudla, kunezinhlobo ezimbili ze-spiroatoms, ngakho igama le-dispiro liqala. Esikhathini sokuqala sokugcina, kukhona ama-athomu amabili, okubonisa igama dispiro [2. Okulandelayo, kune-athomu eyodwa neyodwa kwelinye i-ring yokugcina phakathi kwe-spiroatoms, eveza igama lezimbongolo ezimbili [2.1.3 5. I spiroatom yesibili, olunezinombolo 5, yengeziwe njengoba indlela uzohlangana-athomu emva-athomu e iringi esibulalayo, ngesikhathi sokugcina ngokungeza 9 futhi 10 ama-athomu phakathi 3 futhi 5 spiroatoms Bese wengeze i alkane kokuba inani elifanayo lama-athomu we-spiro compound, i-decane, igamaispiro [2.1.3 5 .2 3] imidwebo evezwe igama.

Ukuqokwa kwamagama okujwayelekile we-spiro compounds
I-monospirocyclic compound inquma igama lomzali we-hydrocarbon ngokusho kwenani le-athomu le-carbon elibandakanyeka ekwakheni indandatho; wonke ama-athomu e-ring ye-spiro abalwa ngokulandelana kwendandatho encane kanye ne-ring enkulu kanye nama-atro spiro anciphisa; ke zilandelwa ngamakaki a square. Ukulandelana kwezinombolo zendandatho yonke kuboniswa ngenani inani le-athomu le-carbon elihlukaniswe phakathi kwe-atro spiro ehambisanayo, ngaphezu kwegama le-chain hydrocarbon ehambelana nayo yonke indandatho; izinombolo zihlukaniswe ngephashaza eliphansi, ngesimo: inhlanzi [a, b] i-alkane.

I-hybrid screw

Umphumela we-anomeric we-ring heterospiral kusho ukuthi ama-athomu amabili atholakale ama-electron noma ama-electron ahlangene ku-conformation ahlukile ekunciphiseni umzuzwana we-dipole we-molecule futhi anciphise amandla angaphakathi kwe-intramolecular. Ku-1968, ithimba lokucwaninga le-Descotes liqale lihlongoze umphumela we-anomeric. Lapho utadisha acetal bicyclic, zathola ukuthi compounds ezimbili kulo mdwebo ongezansi equkethwe 57% we isomer cis futhi 43% we isomer trans e ingxube yakhoibrium at 80 C. cis isomer isilinganiso trans I isomer kwaba ezinzile nge umehluko wamandla we-0.71 kJ / mol. Ngenxa yomphumela we-anomeric wesisoma se-cis, i-trans isomer ayinayo impumelelo enjalo.

Ukuziphatha

Amanye amakhemikhali enobunono ane-chirurgical axial. I-Spiroatoms ingaba izikhungo ze-chiral, ngisho noma zingenalo izakhi ezimele ezine ezidingekayo ukuze zibone izidakamizwa. Lapho amasongo amabili efana, uhlelo lwe-CIP lunikela ngokubaluleka okwedlulele ukwandisa ukwandiswa kwesinye indandatho kanye nenye enye indandatho ebaluleke kakhulu. Ingasetshenziswa uma indandatho ingafani.

Ama-cyclic compounds angenziwa ngezigaba ezilandelayo:

• Inhlanganisela ye-Alicyclic

Lokhu kuyinkimbinkimbi yezinto eziphilayo ezihlanganisa i-aliphatic compound kanye ne-cyclic compound. Zinezintambo ezine noma ngaphezulu ezingenalutho noma ze-carbocyclic, kodwa izindandatho azizona ezimnandi.

• I-Naphthenic

Ngokwesayizi wendandatho, ama-naphthenes angahlukaniswa abe amancane, aphakathi nendawo amakhulu. I-cyclopropane ne-cyclobutane kubhekwa njengento encane. I-cyclopentane evamile, i-cyclohexane, i-cycloheptane, ne-cyclooctane kuya kwe-cyclotridecane yi-medium size, futhi emikhulu ibhekwa njengama-naphthenes amakhulu.

I-cycloolefin

Lena hydrocarbon ye-cyclic ine-bond kabili ye-carbon-carbon kaboni. I-monoolefins elula yama-cyclic ihlanganisa i-cyclopropene, i-cyclobutene, i-cyclopentene ne-cyclohexene, kuyilapho ama-poly cyclic ane-cyclopropadiene, i-cyclobutadiene, i-cyclopentadiene. Linda. Ama-olefini athile ama-cyclic, njenge-cyclobuteneand cyclopentene, angafakwa polymerized njengoba ama-monomers enza ama-polymers.

• I-hydrocarbon enefuthe

Ama-hydrocarboni ahlanzekile futhi abaluleke kunawo wonke yi-benzeneand a homologues ayo afana ne-toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene nokunye okunjalo. Ngamakhemikhali, ezinye izindandatho ezimnandi azizona izakhiwo ze-benzene ngokuphelele, kodwa ama-athomu e-carbon atholakala yi-nitrogen, oksijeni, isulfure nezinye izakhi. Sibabiza ngokuthi ama-hterocycle, njenge-yuan amahlanu njengo-furan. Indandatho ihlanganisa i-athomu ye-oksijeni kanti i-pyrrole iqukethe i-athomu ye-nitrogen. I-Thiophene iqukethe i-athomu lesababule nokunye.

Futhi i-aromatics ingahlukaniswa ibe yi:

• I-hydrocarbon e-monocyclic enamakha
• I-polycyclic i-hydrocarbon enomsoco
Ama-hydrocarboni anamakha anama-chain shape ajwayele ukubizwa ngokuthi ama-aliphatic arenes, futhi ama-hydrocarboni ahlanzekile ajwayelekile ama-toluene, i-ethylbenzene, i-styrene, nokunye okunjalo.
• I-Heterocyclic compound

Iqukethe indandatho enombala engenayo indandatho ye-heterocyclic noma indawo engena endaweni. Eziningi zazo ziyaziwa noma ziyakwazi ukubulala amagciwane. I-elula kakhulu yale makhemikhali i-naphthalene, enezindandatho ezimbili ezimnandi, kanye nama-tricyclic compounds ruthenium ne-phenanthrene.

Ama-hydrocarboni anamakha ama-Polycyclic ayengathathi hlangothi, ama-molecule angewona ama-polar atholakala kumalahle omlilo nama-tar. Zinezinto eziphilayo ezinokushisa okungaphelele (isib. Injini kanye ne-incinerator, lapho ihlathi livutha ku-biomass combustion, njll). Isibonelo, ikhiqizwa ukushisa okungapheli kwamakhemikhali aphethwe yi-carbonaceous ezifana nezinkuni, izinkuni, izinkuni, nogwayi. Futhi itholakale enyameni enomdla.

Amakhemikhali e-polycyclic anamakha angaphezu kwamasongo amathathu anesisindo esincane esincane nokucindezela okuphansi kwe-vapor emanzini. Lapho isisindo samangqamuzana sanda, kokubili ukuxazululwa komzimba kanye nokucindezela kwe-vapor kwehla. Ama-polycyclic ama-polycyclic amakhemikhali anomswakama ane-solubility ephansi nomfutho we-vapor. Ngakho-ke ama-polycyclic amakhemikhali aphunga kakhulu atholakale enhlabathini nasemigqumeni kunamanzi nomoya. Noma kunjalo, ama-polycyclic amakhemikhali aphunga avame ukutholakala ezinhlayiyeni ezimiswe emoyeni.

Ama-polycyclic amaningi amakhemikhali ahlanzekile aye achazwa ngokuthi ama-carcinogens. Imibiko yokuhlolwa kwemitholampilo ibonisa ukuthi ukuvezwa isikhathi eside ezindaweni eziphakeme zama-polycyclic amakhemikhali ahlanzekile kungabangela umdlavuza wesikhumba, umdlavuza wamaphaphu, umdlavuza wesisu nomdlavuza wesibindi. Amakhemikhali e-polycyclic anamakha angaphazamisa izinto eziphilayo, avuse ukukhula kwamangqamuzana omdlavuza futhi akhulise izifo zomdlavuza.

Lapho isisindo samangqamuzana sanda, i-carcinogenicity ye-polycyclic inhlanganisela enamakha iyanda, futhi ubuthi obunzima buyancipha. I-polycyclic ingqimba ephunga, i-Benzo [a] pyrene (i-Benzo [a] pyrene), yayiyi-first chemical carcinogen etholakala.

Isicelo

I-agent yokwandisa i-polymer

I-polymerization noma i-solidification ye-polymeri ngesikhathi i-polymerization noma isondlo isuke ibangelwa amandla e-van der Waals phakathi kwama-molecule e-monomer esimweni se-liquide noma ama-molecule angakapheli-chain, futhi ibanga eliphakathi kwama-molecule likhulu; ngemuva kokuphoqelelwa noma ukuguqulwa, ukuhamba kwe-Covalent amabhondi phakathi kwama-structural unit kubangelwa ukuqubuka komthamo we-polymer. Kuthiwa ukuthi ama-shrinkage ngezinye izikhathi abulalayo ku-polymeri, njengokubangela ukuguga okusheshayo kwe-polymeri, ukuguquguquka nokunciphisa ukusebenza jikelele. Ukuze kuxazululwe inkinga yokuqothula ivolumu yokuphulukisa i-polymeri, amakhemikhali enze imizamo engapheli, kodwa ngokuvamile inganciphisa futhi ayikwazi ukuqeda ngokuphelele ukukhishwa kwevolumu. Kuze kube yi-1972, Bailey et al. athuthukise uchungechunge lwe-spiro compounds futhi wathola ukuthi lezi zinhlanganisela zenziwe nge-polymerized. Lapho ivolumu ingaboni, iyancipha. Ukutholakala kwama-monomers okwandisiwe kuye kwaheha isithakazelo sabososayensi abaningi, futhi ucwaningo oluningi lwenziwa. Ama-monomers anwetshiwe abe yizinto ezisebenzayo ze-polymer ezisebenzayo. Amakhemikhali akhiwe njenge spiro orthoester kanye ne-spiro orthocarbonate yizona ezihle kakhulu zokwandiswa kwamandla futhi asetshenziselwe ukulungiselela izingxenye eziphezulu zamandla, izibopho eziphezulu zokusebenza, izinto zokwenza izinto ezinamakhemikhali ezinamakhemikhali kanye nezinto zokwelashwa ze-polymer. Ukuguqulwa kwama polymers okuhloswe ngawo jikelele kanye nokwabelana kwama-oligomers anamaqembu asebenzayo.

I-Electroluminescence

Kungakhathaliseki ukuthi i-organic compound iveza ukukhanya futhi ububanzi obukhulu bokukhishwa kokukhanyisa kanye nokusebenza kahle kokuphuma kokukhanya kuxhomeke ikakhulukazi kwisakhiwo samakhemikhali. Ngokuvamile i-fluorescence ivela kuma-molecule ngezindiza ezinamandla nezinhlelo ezihlanganisiwe, okuthuthukisa umphumela wokuhlanganiswa kwe-electron kanye ne-coplanarity ye-molecule, ezuzisa ukuthuthukisa ukusebenza kahle kwe-fluorescence. Kukhona izinto eziningi zokukhanya ezikhanyayo eziphilayo. Izinhlobo eziyinhloko: i-spiro ring, i-poly-p-phenylene vinylene, i-polythiophene, i-polythiadiazole ne-metal coordination compounds. Phakathi kwabo, ama-spirocyclic amakhemikhali anomswakama anezinhlelo ezinkulu ezihlanganisiwe nobunzima obuhle kanye ne-coplanarity, izinga lokushisa eliphezulu lamagesi kanye nokuzinza okuphezulu. I-EL idivayisi elula futhi ayidingi imishini eyinkimbinkimbi, ngakho-ke kungenzeka ukunciphisa izindleko zokukhiqiza ngesikhathi futhi ukulungiselela kalula amadivaysi amakhulu.

I-pesticide

I-ring fused ne-spiro isakhi esine-hetero athomu akulula ukukhiqiza ukumelana ngenxa yesenzo sabo esiyingqayizivele sento, futhi sithole ukunakekelwa okukhulu ekuthuthukiseni ama-pesticides. Isibonelo: Rudi et al. kubike ukuthi i-3,9-dichloro-2,4,8,10-tetraoxa-3,9-diphosphaspiro [5.5] engavamile-i-3,9-dioxide ne-sulfide Hydrogen yasabela ekukhiqizeni isakhi se-spiro inoveli, i-3,9-dihydro-3,9-dithio-2,4,8,10-tetraoxa-3,9-diphospho [5.5] okungafani. I-derivatives yayo iyisigaba esisha sezinambuzane ze-organophosphate nezinambuzane, okungasusa isardard, ragweed, njll ngokuphumelelayo kusuka kokolweni, okusanhlamvu, ukotini nama-soybe.